Tumor cell proliferation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory compounds in Amaranthus tricolor

Filed under: Enzyme

Jayaprakasam, B; Zhang, Y; Nair, Mg, 2004: Tumor cell proliferation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory compounds in Amaranthus tricolor. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry17 52(23): 6939-6943

Amaranthus tricolor is consumed as a vegetable in Asia. Bioassay-directed isolation of leaves and stems of A. tricolor yielded three galactosyl diacylglycerols (1-3) with potent cyclooxygenase and human tumor cell growth inhibitory activities. The purified compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. In addition, the fatty acid moieties in diacyl galactosyl glyerols were characterized by Gc-Ms analyses. The galactosyl diacylglycerols 1-3 inhibited the cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) enzyme by 78, 63, and 93% and the cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) enzyme by 87, 74, and 95%, respectively. These compounds were tested for antiproliferative activity using human Ags (gastric), Cns (central nervous system; Sf-268), Hct-116 (colon), Nci-H460 (lung), and Mcf-7 (breast) cancer cell lines. Compound 1 inhibited the growth of Ags, Sf-268, Hct-116, Nci-H460, and Mcf-7 tumor cell lines with Ic50 values of 49.1, 71.8, 42.8, 62.5, and 39.2 microgram/mL, respectively. For Ags, Hct-116, and Mcf-7 tumor cell lines, the Ic50 values of compounds 2 and 3 were 74.3, 71.3, and 58.7 microgram/mL and 83.4, 73.1, and 85.4, respectively. This is the first report of the Cox enzyme inhibitory activity for galactosyl glycerols and antiproliferative activities against human colon, breast, lung, stomach, and Cns tumor cell lines.




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