A reductase is basically an enzyme that brings about or catalyzes a reduction reaction, which is also known as a “redox” (reduction oxidation) reaction. A redox reaction involves all chemical reactions in which the atoms have their oxidation states changed. An example of a simple redox process is the oxidation of carbon to produce carbon dioxide. Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state (as in a molecule, atom, or ion), while reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation state.
There are many kinds of reductase, such as the dihydrofolate reductase (or DHFR), an enzyme that produces a reduction reaction in dihydrofolic acid (and thus converting it to tetrahydrofolic acid) by using the NADPH as an electron donor. In humans, the DHFR gene encodes this enzyme. Bacterial organisms also possess distinct DHFR enzymes, while mammalian species have highly similar DHFR enzymes.
Another kind of reductase is the HMG-CoA reductase (or the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, HMGCR for short), which is an enzyme that controls the rate of the mevalonate pathway. This pathway is known for producing cholesterol and other kinds of isoprenoids. On the other hand, the methemoglobin reductase is responsible for converting methemoglobin to haemoglobin.
Ribonucleotide reductase (also known as the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase) is an enzyme that brings about the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides. This product is essential in the synthesis of DNA in various organisms. The ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) is essential in the total rate of DNA synthesis in all living organisms. Thioredoxin reductase, on the other hand, are the only known enzymes to reduce the group of redox proteins called thioredoxin.
This category contains scientific information on reductase, an enzyme that is known for catalyzing reduction and reduction oxidation reactions in various kinds of proteins.
Kamata T., 1980: Experimental study on hepatic 3 hydroxy 3 methyl glutaryl coenzyme a reductase activity in relation to the formation and dissolution of cholesterol gall stones. Archiv Fuer Japanische Chirurgie: 477-495 The mechanisms of formation and dissolution of cholesterol gallstones were elucidated. The activity of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmg-CoA reductase), the rate limiting enzyme [...]
Aguilar J., 1981: Experimental evolution of propanediol oxido reductase in escherichia coli comparative analysis of the wild type and mutant enzymes. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta: 98-107 A model for the study of experimental evolution is provided by the novel metabolic system responsible for the progressive use of L-1,2-propanediol by mutants of E. coli (strains 3 [...]
Versprille A., 1988: Exercise response in patients with an enzyme deficiency in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. European Respiratory Journal: 445-452 Responses to exercise were obtained in six patients with a biochemically diagnosed enzyme deficiency at the level of Nadh-CoQ reductase. The responses were compared with those of a control group, consisting of fourteen patients with [...]
Meister A., 1980: Excretion of cysteine and gamma glutamyl cysteine moieties in human and experimental animal gamma glutamyl trans peptidase deficiency. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America: 3384-3387 Animals treated with potent.gamma.-glutamyl transpeptidase inhibitors and a patient with severe.gamma.-glutamyl transpeptidase deficiency excrete much larger than normal amounts of [...]
Siegel L.M., 1984: Exchange coupling between siroheme and 4 iron 4 sulfur cluster in escherichia coli sulfite reductase moessbauer studies and coupling models for a 2 electron reduced enzyme state and complexes with sulfide. Journal Of The American Chemical Society2: 6786-6794 Recent Mossbauer and Epr studies of the hemoprotein subunit (SiR) of E. coli sulfite [...]
Matthews R.G., 1988: Examination of the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in incorporation of methyltetrahydrofolate into cellular metabolism. Faseb Journal: 42-47 Most mammalian cells receive exogenous folate from the blood stream in the form of 5-methyltetrahydropteroylmonoglutamate (Ch3-H4PteGlu1). Because this folate derivatie is a very poor substrate for folylpolyglutamate synthetase, the enzyme that adds glutamyl residues to [...]
Takemori S., 1988: Examination of differences between benzo a pyrene and steroid hydroxylases in guinea pig adrenal microsomes. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta: 83-89 The effects of antibodies to cytochromes P-45017.alpha.,lyase and P-450c21 on benzopyrene hydroxylase activity were measured in microsomes from guinea pig adrenals. Anti-cytochrome P-45017.alpha.,lyase IgG inhibited about 30% of the benzopyrene hydroxylase activity [...]
Kucera J., 1982: Examination of chronically de efferented cat muscle spindles for cholin esterase activity. Histochemistry: 625-634 Cat tenuissimus muscles were deprived of motor nerve supply for 3 mo. by sectioning of the appropriate ventral spinal roots. Muscles spindles were located in the chronically de-efferented muscles and examined histochemically in serial transverse sections. Staining for [...]
Carlson, S. E.; Mitchell, A. D.; Carter, M. L.; Goldfarb, S., 1980: Evidence that physiologic levels of circulating estrogens and neo natal sex imprinting modify post pubertal hepatic microsomal 3 hydroxy 3 methyl glutaryl coenzyme a reductase ec 126.96.36.199 activity. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 633(2): 154-161 Intact, sham-operated female rats had 2- to 3-fold higher [...]
Siegel L.M., 1982: Evidence of siroheme tetra nuclear iron sulfur center interaction in spinach ferredoxin sulfite reductase. Biochemistry: 2905-2909 Spinach ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) contains 1 siroheme and one Fe4S4 center per polypeptide subunit. The heme is entirely in the high-spin Fe3+ state in the oxidized enzyme. When SiR is photochemically reduced with ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Edta)-deazaflavin, the [...]