In the field of biochemistry, a kinase is a kind of enzyme that has the ability to transfer phosphate groups from donor molecules with high energy levels (such as adenosine triphosphate or ATP) to specific substrates. This chemical process is known as phosphorylation. Belonging to the larger family of phosphotransferases, kinases should not be confused with phosphorylases, which in turn carry out phosporolysis or the breaking of a chemical bond with an inorganic phosphate group. Kinases should also not be confused with phosphatases, which remove phosphate groups from substrates.
There are many kinds of kinases, but the largest of these groups are the protein kinases. This kind of kinases acts on and modify the activity of specific proteins. Kinases are often used to transmit signals and control various complex processes in the cells. Because of their enormous diversity and their important role in signalling, makes them an interesting object of study for scientists. In human bodies alone, scientists have discovered more than five hundred different kinases.
Kinases are also found to act on small molecules such as amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleotides, where they play an important role in signalling for various cellular processes or to prime them for metabolic pathways. When naming kinases, scientists often name the substances after their substrates.
Protein kinases modify other proteins through chemically adding phosphate groups to these substances through the process of phosphorylation. This process results into a functional change of the target protein (or the substrate) through changing enzyme activity, cellular location, or the association with other proteins. Kinases also constitute two percent of all human genes, and can also modify up to thirty percent of all human proteins. Protein kinases can also be found in bacteria and plants.
This category contains scientific information on kinase, which are essential enzymes in humans, animals, plants, and bacteria.
Maga, Giovanni; Verri, Annalisa; Bonizzi, Luigi; Ponti, Wilma; Poli, Giorgio; Garbesi, Anna; Niccolai, Daniela; Spadari, Silvio; Focher, Federico, 1993: Lack of stereospecificity of suid pseudorabies virus thymidine kinase. Biochemical Journal. 294(2): 381-385 We have partially purified suid pseudorabies virus (Prv) thymidine kinase from infected thymidine kinase- mouse cells, and cytosolic swine thymidine kinase from lymphatic [...]
Riou, Catherine; Tourte, Yves; Lacroute, Francois; Karst, Francis, 1994: Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding Arabidopsis thaliana mevalonate kinase by genetic complementation in yeast. Gene (amsterdam). 148(2): 293-297 A 1.64-kb cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis thaliana mevalonate kinase (Mk) was cloned by complementation of the erg12-1 mutation affecting Mk in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and [...]
Williams, D. L.; Diehl, W. J., 1992: Interactive effects of soil moisture and food on glycolytic metabolism in Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B, Comparative Biochemistry 102(4): 911-917 Activities of hexokinase, phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and fructose bis-phosphatase and tissue levels of glucose and glycogen were measured in Eisenia fetida raised in four [...]
Feil, Robert; Mueller, Stefan; Hofmann, Franz, 1993: High-level expression of functional cGMP-dependent protein kinase using the baculovirus system. Febs (federation Of European Biochemical Societies) Letters. 336(1): 163-167 The understanding of the structure and function of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP kinase) has been hindered by the difficulty to obtain large quantities of functional enzyme. A recombinant [...]
Arai, T.; Washizu, T.; Hamada, S.; Sako, T.; Takagi, S.; Yashiki, K.; Motoyoshi, S., 1994: Glucose transport and glycolytic enzyme activities in erythrocytes of two-year-old thoroughbreds undergoing training exercise. Veterinary Research Communications. 18(6): 417-422 D-Glucose transport and cytosolic enzyme activities were measured in erythrocytes from 2-year-old thoroughbreds under continuous training exercise (race horses) and compared [...]
Sauter, Margret; Mekhedov, Sergei L.; Kende, Hans, 1995: Gibberellin promotes histone H1 kinase activity and the expression of cdc2 and cyclin genes during the induction of rapid growth in deepwater rice internodes. Plant Journal. 7(4): 623-632 Partial submergence or treatment with either ethylene or gibberellin (Ga) promotes rapid internodal growth in deepwater rice (Oryza saliva [...]
Aggarwal, Kamal K.; Sachar, R. C., 1995: Gibberellin stimulates synthesis of a protein kinase in dwarf pea epicotyls. Phytochemistry (oxford). 40(2): 383-387 Application of gibberellin A-3 (Ga-3, 1 mu-M) stimulated protein kinase activity two-fold in light-grown dwarf pea epicotyls. This response was almost completely blocked by the simultaneous application of abscisic acid (Aba, 10 mu-M). [...]
Muehlbauer, Gj; Gengenbach, Bg; Somers, Da; Donovan, Cm, 1994: Genetic and amino-acid analysis of two maize threonine-overproducing, lysine-insensitive aspartate kinase mutants. Theoretical and applied genetics 89(6): 767-774 The aspartate-derived amino-acid pathway leads to the production of the essential amino-acids lysine, methionine, threonine and isoleucine. Aspartate kinase (Ak) is the first enzyme in this pathway and [...]
Valera, Alfons; Pujol, Anna; Gregori, Xavier; Riu, Efren; Visa, Joana; Bosch, Fatima, 1995: Evidence from transgenic mice that myc regulates hepatic glycolysis. Faseb Journal. 9(11): 1067-1078 The product of the c-myc proto-oncogene (c-Myc) is involved in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It acts as a transcription factor that recognizes the Cacgtg motif. [...]
Mazzacano, C. A.; Fallon, A. M., 1995: Evaluation of a viral thymidine kinase gene for suicide selection in transfected mosquito cells. Insect Molecular Biology. 4(2): 125-134 An Aedes albopictus cell line previously shown to be deficient in thymidine kinase activity was transfected with a thymidine kinase gene (tk) from Herpes simplex virus. Survival of the [...]