In the field of biochemistry, there are two types of electrophoresis: the nucleic acid electrophoresis and the electrophoresis of proteins.
Nucleic acid electrophoresis, or DNA electrophoresis, is an analytical technique that allows a scientist or researcher to separate DNA or RNA fragments according to their size and reactivity. The nucleic acids that are to be analyzed using this process are set upon a gel medium, where an electric field will be used to induce the nucleic acids toward the anode. This is made possible by the net negative charge of the backbone of the nucleic acid chain, which is made of sugar and phosphate molecules. The separation of the nucleic acid fragments is done through exploiting the mobilities, with which molecules of different sizes are able to pass through the viscous medium. Smaller fragments typically end up nearer to the anode, while longer molecules migrate more slowly because the gel provides resistance to these particles. After a certain amount of time, the electric current will be removed and the resulting fragmentation gradient is analyzed.
Protein electrophoresis, on the other hand, uses a fluid or an extract in order to analyze the proteins contained within. Typically, a protein electrophoresis is performed with a small amount of the sample used in alternative ways—either with or without a supporting medium. There are different kinds of protein electrophoresis, including SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, electrofocusing, free flow electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, affinity electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, counterelectrophoresis, and capillary electrophoresis. Each of these methods has different variations, as well as individual advantages and limitations. However, protein electrophoresis is limited by practical limitations regarding its use as a preparative method. Protein electrophoresis is very useful in medicine in terms of analyzing the proteins present in the blood serum.
This category contains scientific information on electrophoresis, a process used in biochemistry to determine and evaluate proteins or enzymes within a specific sample.
Hou, Y.; Sterling, T. M., 1995: Isozyme variation in broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae). Weed Science 43(1): 156-162 Broom snakeweed, a perennial rangeland shrub, is highly variable morphologically and can grow under a broad range of environmental conditions. In this study, isozyme analysis using starch gel electrophoresis was used to quantify genetic variability within and among [...]
Salgar, Shashikumar K.; Paape, Max J.; Alston Mills, Brenda, 1994: Isolation and partial polypeptide characterization of bovine neutrophil plasma membranes. American Journal Of Veterinary Research. 55(6): 803-809 The neutrophil plasma membrane has a major role in migration, phagocytosis, and destruction of microorganisms. Neutrophils isolated from blood and mammary secretions were homogenized, and the plasma membrane [...]
Nikai, Toshiaki; Okumura, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Youichi; Uchiya, Keiichi; Kamiya, Kazuhito; Sugihara, Hisayoshi, 1993: Isolation and characterization of fibrinogenase from Candida albicans NH-1. International Journal Of Biochemistry. 25(12): 1815-1822 Fibrinogenase was isolated from Candida albicans Nh-1 by Deae-Cellulose, Sephadex G-75 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatographies. The purified fibrinogenase gave a single band on disc polyacrylamide gel [...]
Maurin, M.; Roux, V.; Stein, A.; Ferrier, F.; Viraben, R.; Raoult, D., 1994: Isolation and characterization by immunofluorescence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot, restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Rochalimaea quintana from a patient with bacillary angiomatosis. Journal Of Clinical Microbiology. 32(5): 1166-1171 Rochalimaea quintana was [...]
Svidzinsky, T. I. E.; Camargo, Z. P., 1995: Isoenzyme profile of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Journal Of Medical & Veterinary Mycology. 33(5): 281-285 Isoenzyme profiles of 10 strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from different origins (nine strains from patients with different clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis and one from the faeces of a penguin) were determined by polyacrylamide gel [...]
Marchat, L.; Loiseau, P. M.; Pous, C.; Petek, F., 1994: Isoenzymatic diagnosis of filariae: a method for separation of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from Molinema dessetae (Nematoda: Filarioidea). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 109(2/3): 451-457 Lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) is highly active in filariae and could be a valuable tool for phyllogeny studies. [...]
Meyer, M. Hockenberry; White, Donald B., 1995: Inheritance of phosphoglucoisomerase in fountain grass. Journal Of The American Society For Horticultural Science. 120(3): 543-547 Starch gel electrophoresis was used to screen 10 enzyme systems for variation in fountain grass, Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng. plants exhibiting four different growth habits: dwarf (d), mound (m), prostrate, upright (u). [...]
Aravanopoulos, F. A.; Zsuffa, L.; Chong, K. X., 1994: Inheritance of isozymes in Salix eriocephala Michx. Journal Of Heredity. 85(5): 381-388 We conducted studies of genetic determinism in Salix eriocephala, a willow species potentially important in short rotation intensive culture plantations. Using starch gel electrophoresis, we assayed for biochemical variation of 26 enzyme systems in [...]
Sreetharan, Von K.; Mukherjee, T. K.; Halbeisen, C.; Leopold, S., 1995: Inheritance of carbonic anhydrase, esterase D, malate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme in South-east Asian water buffalo. Journal Of Animal Breeding & Genetics. 112(2): 156-159 The estimation of genetic distances among populations of water buffalo bubalus bubalis sheds light on their genetic diversity. Genetic distances [...]
Beaulieu, J.; Simon, J.P., 1994: Inheritance and linkage relationships of allozymes in Pinus strobus L. Silvae Genetica. 43(4): 253-261 Eighteen loci, comprising 15 polymorphic loci from 12 enzyme systems in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), were analyzed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis using megagametophyte haploid tissue. Thirty trees were sampled in each of 10 natural [...]