The term electrospray ionization (also known as ESI) refers to the technique used in mass spectrometry processes in order to produce ions. This technique is very useful in producing ions from macromolecules, as it has the ability to overcome the propensity of macromolecules to fragment when they are undergoing ionization. John Bennett Fenn received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of electrospray ionization for the purpose of analyzing biological macromolecules. Mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization is known as electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (or ESI-MS) or electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS).
Electrospray ionization is also useful in the process of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (also known as LC-MS). ESI is the ion source of choice used with this type of chromatography. The analysis itself can be formed online through feeding the liquid eluting (removing an adsorbed substance through washing with a solvent) from the LC column directly to an electrospray. The process can also be performed offline, through the collection of fractions to be analyzed later in a classic nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry setup. Electrospray voltage is one of the most important operating parameters in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, as it is an essential parameter to consider in the ESI liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Various solvent compositions (including compounds such as ammonium acetate, derivatizing groups, and supercharging reagents) can influence how the process can be further studied.
Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry combines the physical separation abilities of high-pressure liquid chromatography with the mass analysis abilities of mass spectrometry. LC-MS is a very powerful technique that is used for many applications, because of its very high sensitivity and selectivity.
This category contains scientific information on electrospray ionization, the technique used in mass spectrometry processes in order to produce ions. This technique can be especially useful in liquid chromatography.
Hong C S., 1984: Photo ionization conductivity detection limits for environmental pollutants with and without chromophores/. Analytical Letters: 467-474 The sensitivity of a detector which combined Uv photolysis with electrical conductance measurement of photolysis products was evaluated for determination of common pollutants by high-performance liquid chromatography. Compounds which had a Uv chromophore compatible with either [...]
Rosen J.D., 1979: Photo degradation of cytrolane mephosfolan systemic insecticide in the aquatic environment using carbon 13 as a mass tracer. Journal Of Agricultural & Food Chemistry: 1046-1050 Photodegradation of mephosfolan (Cytrolane) was studied by exposing approximately equimolar mixtures of either 12c/13c-imido-labeled or 12c/13c-ethyl-labeled material to sunlight. Use of 12c/13c mixtures facilitated identification of photoproducts [...]
Palazuelos J.L., 1981: Pharmaco kinetics of valproic acid in the rat after multiple doses. Archivos De Farmacologia Y Toxicologia: 155-160 In a study on 270 adult female rats, blood samples were extracted in lots of 10 rats each after they had received 250 mg/kg body wt of sodium valproate or 100 mg/kg of this substance [...]
Lauven P.M., 1980: Pharmaco kinetics of etomidate in man. Der Anaesthesist: 658-661 The pharmacokinetic behavior of etomidate was investigated in 7 patients. A method for the analysis of etomidate is described using gas-liquid chromatography for separation and alkali flame ionization detection. The lower limit of detection for etomidate in plasma was 0.005.mu.g/ml. The pharmacokinetic behavior [...]
Petrosyan V.S., 1985: Paraffinic hydrocarbons in the western part of the black sea. Okeanologiya: 453-458 The qualitative and quantitative composition of n-alkanes, contaminating western part of Black sea has been studied by means of gas chromatography (glass capillary column, 25 m, i.d. 0,25 mm, Se-30, temperature programmming from 50.degree. C (2 min) to 320.degree. C [...]
Kallos G.J., 1981: Oxygen induced response enhancement in determination of bis chloromethyl ether by gas chromatography with nickel 63 electron capture detection. Analytical Chemistry: 963-965 A constant-current electron capture detector with a 63Ni ionization source was used to determine the effect of oxygen in nitrogen carrier gas on detector response to bis(chloromethyl) ether (Bcme). Changes [...]
Kruzynski G.M., 1986: Organic extractables in primary treated municipal wastewater and uptake in exposed juvenile chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha a preliminary study at iona island sewage treatment plant vancouver british columbia canada. Canadian Technical Report Of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences: I-Vii, 1-35 Primary-treated municipal wastewater samples from the Iona Island Sewage Treatment Plant, Vancouver, British [...]
Blasko T.J., 1980: Organic content of particulate matter in turbine engine exhaust. Journal Of The Air Pollution Control Association: 261-266 Solid particulate matter, mainly C, emitted into the air from the combustion of fossil fuels contains a variety of organic species adsorbed on it. In an examination of these particulates from the combustion of kerosene [...]
Ramdahl T., 1984: Occurrence of nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmosphere in a rural area. Atmospheric Environment: 2159-2166 By means of gas chromatography with N sensitive detection and negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection 7 mononitro-Pah, 9-nitroanthracene, x-nitro-4,5-methylene-phenanthrene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, 1- and 2-nitropyrene, 10-nitrobenzanthracene and 6-nitrobenzopyrene were identified in samples of airborne particulate matter. [...]
Baird W.M., 1988: Nucleophilic reactions between biological conjugates and tetraalkylammonium ion pair reagents during desorption chemical ionization. Biomedical & Environmental Mass Spectrometry: 571-576 Tetraalkylammonium salts, commonly used as ion pair reagents in chromatography, were found to react with biological conjugates under desorption chemical ionization conditions in a mass spectrometer. The reactions occur for aromatic glucuronide [...]