The term electrospray ionization (also known as ESI) refers to the technique used in mass spectrometry processes in order to produce ions. This technique is very useful in producing ions from macromolecules, as it has the ability to overcome the propensity of macromolecules to fragment when they are undergoing ionization. John Bennett Fenn received the 2002 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the development of electrospray ionization for the purpose of analyzing biological macromolecules. Mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization is known as electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (or ESI-MS) or electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS).
Electrospray ionization is also useful in the process of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (also known as LC-MS). ESI is the ion source of choice used with this type of chromatography. The analysis itself can be formed online through feeding the liquid eluting (removing an adsorbed substance through washing with a solvent) from the LC column directly to an electrospray. The process can also be performed offline, through the collection of fractions to be analyzed later in a classic nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry setup. Electrospray voltage is one of the most important operating parameters in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, as it is an essential parameter to consider in the ESI liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Various solvent compositions (including compounds such as ammonium acetate, derivatizing groups, and supercharging reagents) can influence how the process can be further studied.
Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry combines the physical separation abilities of high-pressure liquid chromatography with the mass analysis abilities of mass spectrometry. LC-MS is a very powerful technique that is used for many applications, because of its very high sensitivity and selectivity.
This category contains scientific information on electrospray ionization, the technique used in mass spectrometry processes in order to produce ions. This technique can be especially useful in liquid chromatography.
Zou, Yu Ping; Wang, Xiao Quan; Lei, Yi Ding; Pei, Yan Long; Zhang, Zhi Xian, 1994: Isolation and characterization of total DNA from several endangered species and their allies. Acta Botanica Sinica. 36(7): 528-533 A low pH extraction medium with high salts, which avoids ionization and subsequent oxidation of phenolic compounds during tissue grinding and [...]
Epstein, Robert L.; Henry, Carolyn; Holland, Kathleen P.; Dreas, John, 1994: International validation study for the determination of chloramphenicol in bovine muscle. Journal Of Aoac International. 77(3): 570-576 A gas chromatographic (Gc) procedure for the quantitation and Gc/negative on chemical ionization mass spectrometric (Nicims) confirmation of chloramphenicol in calf muscle tissue was the subject of [...]
Zhu, J.; Kozlov, M. V.; Philipp, P.; Francke, W.; Lofstedt, C., 1995: Identification of a novel moth sex pheromone in Eriocrania cicatricella (Zett.) (Lepidoptera: Eriocraniidae) and its phylogenetic implications. Journal of Chemical Ecology 21(1): 29-43 Extracts from different body parts of adult female Eriocrania cicatricella (Zett.) were tested for electrophysiological activity on conspecific male antennae. [...]
Furlong, Eliana B.; Soares, Lucia M. Valente, 1995: Gas chromatographic method for quantitation and confirmation of trichothecenes in wheat. Journal Of Aoac International. 78(2): 386-390 A capillary gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detection was evaluated for quantitation and confirmation of 7 trichothecenes known to occur in grain crops. The method was applied to spiked [...]
Holland, Kathleen P.; Henry, A. Carolyn; Wilson, Roger T.; Dreas, John S.; Ashworth, Raymond B., 1995: Four-laboratory validation study of the determination of chloramphenicol in veal calf urine. Journal Of Aoac International. 78(2): 483-491 A four-laboratory validation study of a method for the quantitation and confirmation of low part-per-billion levels of chloramphenicol extracted from veal [...]
Satue, M. T.; Lopez, M. C.; Agramont, A., 1994: Fatty acid composition of trout oil. Food Chemistry. 50(4): 363-365 Fatty acid analysis of oils from farmed trout of the species Oncorhynchus mykiss was carried out by gas-liquid chromatography with a flame ionization detector (Fid). Results show an influence of trout age and sex in fatty [...]
Valverde Garcia, Antonio; Fernandez Alba, Amadeo R.; Herrera, Jose C.; Roldan, Emilio, 1994: Analysis of buprofezin residues in vegetable crops by gas chromatography with mass selective detection in selected ion monitoring mode. Journal Of Aoac International. 77(4): 1041-1046 A gas chromatographic/mass selective detection (Gc/Msd) method in selected ion monitoring (Sim) mode was used to determine [...]
Anklam, Elke; Mueller, Anne, 1994: A simple method of sample preparation for analysis of biphenyl residues in citrus fruit peels by gas chromatography. Zeitschrift Fuer Lebensmittel-Untersuchung Und Forschung. 4: 329-330 A simple method of sample preparation for analysis of residues of the fungicide biphenyl in peels of citrus fruits by gas chromatography (Gc) is described. [...]
Ashraf S.; Bartle K.D.; Clifford A.A.; Moulder R., 1991: Trace analysis of agrochemicals by supercritical fluid chromatography. Hrc Journal Of High Resolution Chromatography. 14(1): 29-32 Capillary superficial fluid chromatography was performed using solvent-vented injection in conjunction with a thermionic ionization detector. Mixtures of organo-nitrogen and phosphorus containing agrochemicals were chromatographed and detection of low picogram [...]
Lofstedt, C.; Hansson, B. S.; Petersson, E.; Valeur, P.; Richards, A., 1994: Pheromonal secretions from glands on the 5th abdominal sternite of hydropsychid and rhyacophilid caddisflies (Trichoptera). Journal of Chemical Ecology 20(1): 153-170 Extracts of different body parts of adult Trichoptera were tested for electrophysiological activity. Extracts of the IVth and Vth abdominal sternites of [...]