The term chromatography is derived from two Greek words; the first, chroma translates into “color,” and the second one, graphein, is the verb “to write.” Chromatography is the collective term for a set of laboratory procedures used in the separation of mixtures. The mixture is typically dissolved in a fluid, in a step known as the mobile phase. The mobile phase carries the mixture through a structure that holds another material, which is called the stationary phase.
The various components of the mixture travel through the phases at different speeds, and this difference in speed causes the components to separate. This separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile phase and the stationary phase. Differential retention on the stationary phase—and therefore, the change in the separation—can stem from the subtle differences in a specific compound’s partition coefficient.
There are two main kinds of chromatography: preparative chromatography and analytical chromatography. Preparative chromatography is used to separate the components of a certain mixture for a more advanced use, and many scientists, researchers, and technicians use this technique in order to purify a mixture. On the other hand, analytical chromatography is done with relatively smaller amounts of the material, and is used for measuring the relative proportions of analytes in a specific mixture.
Chromatography has been used since the 1900’s, when it was first employed by a Russian scientist named Mikhail Tsvet. He used chromatography to separate plant pigments such as carotenes, chlorophyll, and xanthophylls. These plant pigments have different colors and therefore gave the technique its present name. During the 1930’s and the 1940’s, new types of chromatography have been developed and made the technique useful for many other separation processes.
This section contains scientific information on chromatography, the collective term for a set of laboratory procedures used in the separation of mixtures.
Ovodov Yu S., 1986: Preparative synthesis of methyl beta d galactopyranoside methyl ethers. Bioorganicheskaya Khimiya: 1366-1371 The synthesis of methyl ethers of methyl.beta.-D-galactopyranoside, based on partial methylation of methyl.beta.-D-galactopyranoside with dimethyl sulfate in alkaline medium followed by separation of the methyl ether and their acetates with the aid of preparative column liquid chromatography and preparative [...]
Nunogaki H., 1988: Preparative separation of unsaturated fatty acids esters by centrifugal partition chromatography cpc. Journal Of Liquid Chromatography: 283-300 A novel method for separation of fatty acid ethyl esters by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography is reported in this paper. Data are first presented for laboratory-scale separations of fatty acid esters derived from cereal oil, primarily [...]
Hilschmann N., 1980: Preparative separation of the tryptic hydrolysate of a protein by high pressure liquid chromatography the primary structure of a mono clonal l chain of kappa type subgroup i bence jones protein wes. Hoppe Seyler’S Zeitschrift Fuer Physiologische Chemie0: 1591-1598 The tryptic hydrolysate of Bence-Jones protein Wes (Mw = 23,000) was separated by [...]
Leffler H., 1983: Preparative separation of sialic acid containing lipids from sulfate group containing glyco lipids from small intestine of different animals analysis by thin layer chromatography and detection of novel species. Journal Of Biochemistry (tokyo): 1473-1486 Acidic glycolipids (gangliosides and glycolipid sulfates) were purified from nonglycolipid contaminants by silicic acid chromatography of their acetylated [...]
Cook C.E., 1985: Preparative separation of demeton isomers with ito multi layer coil countercurrent chromatography. Journal Of Liquid Chromatography: 2253-2258 The active constituents of the insecticide Demeton, consisting of isomeric 0,0-diethyl (O,S)-ethylmercaptoethyl thiophosphates, have been conveniently separated on a preparative scale with an Ito multi-layer coil countercurrent system.
Vockova J., 1987: Preparative separation of an enzymatic hydrolysate of carbon 14 labelled proteins. Journal Of Chromatography: 35-344 The preparative separation of an enzymatic hydrolysate by a step gradient of a lithium-sodium citrate buffer was studied. Using a two-column arrangement, 10 GBq of 14c-labelled enzymatic hydrolysate or 250 mg of inactive hydrolysate were separated within [...]
Sticher O., 1979: Preparative scale separation of xanthones and iridoid glycosides by droplet countercurrent chromatography. Helvetica Chimica Acta: 2079-2085 Droplet counter-current chromatography (Dccc) was used for the preparative scale separation of pure constituents from crude medicinal plant extracts of Ajuga pyramidalis L. (Labiatae). Several hundred milligrams of iridoid glycosides were obtained within 8 h. The [...]
Marshall A.G., 1984: Preparative scale isolation and purification of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomal 5s rna bacillus subtilis neurospora crassa and wheat germ/. Analytical Biochemistry: 465-471 Ribosomal 5 S Rna from 3 different organisms was isolated in high yield and purity. Without prior isolation of ribosomes, a presoak in buffer followed by phenol extraction, De-32 ion-exchange [...]
Youssef M.S.K., 1979: Preparative scale directed resolution of enantiomeric carboxylic acids and lactones via liquid chromatography and neighboring group assisted hydrolysis of dia stereomeric amides. Angewandte Chemie International Edition In English: 63-65 The diastereomeric amides with Oh groups located in the.gamma. or.delta. position to the carbonyl group show high, in certain cases extreme separation factors [...]
Nill G., 1979: Preparative scale directed resolution of enantiomeric amines via liquid chromatography of dia stereomeric 4 hydroxy butyramides. Angewandte Chemie International Edition In English: 65-66 Racemic 2-substituted butyrolactones, R.noteq. aryl, can be readily resolved into enantiomers by converting them with an enantiomerically pure amine into diastereomeric 4-hydroxybutyramides, separating these by liquid chromatography and cleaving [...]