The term chromatography is derived from two Greek words; the first, chroma translates into “color,” and the second one, graphein, is the verb “to write.” Chromatography is the collective term for a set of laboratory procedures used in the separation of mixtures. The mixture is typically dissolved in a fluid, in a step known as the mobile phase. The mobile phase carries the mixture through a structure that holds another material, which is called the stationary phase.
The various components of the mixture travel through the phases at different speeds, and this difference in speed causes the components to separate. This separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile phase and the stationary phase. Differential retention on the stationary phase—and therefore, the change in the separation—can stem from the subtle differences in a specific compound’s partition coefficient.
There are two main kinds of chromatography: preparative chromatography and analytical chromatography. Preparative chromatography is used to separate the components of a certain mixture for a more advanced use, and many scientists, researchers, and technicians use this technique in order to purify a mixture. On the other hand, analytical chromatography is done with relatively smaller amounts of the material, and is used for measuring the relative proportions of analytes in a specific mixture.
Chromatography has been used since the 1900’s, when it was first employed by a Russian scientist named Mikhail Tsvet. He used chromatography to separate plant pigments such as carotenes, chlorophyll, and xanthophylls. These plant pigments have different colors and therefore gave the technique its present name. During the 1930’s and the 1940’s, new types of chromatography have been developed and made the technique useful for many other separation processes.
This section contains scientific information on chromatography, the collective term for a set of laboratory procedures used in the separation of mixtures.
Buckley C.E.IIi, 1988: Pollen grain column chromatography quantitation and biochemical analysis of ragweed pollen solutes. Journal Of Allergy & Clinical Immunology: 1126-1134 The kinetics, quantitative yield, and sequence of solute release during the extraction of allergenic substances from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen were compared with a conventional batch-type method and the novel technique of [...]
Bogatskii A.V., 1981: Polar lipids of wine. Prikladnaya Biokhimiya I Mikrobiologiya: 614-620 Using column chromatography, Glc and Tlc, the qualitative and quantitative composition of polar lipids of white and red table wines, dessert and fortified wines was investigated. Polar lipids made 30-40% of total lipids; the major portion (about 90%) of polar lipids consisted of [...]
Gambacorta A., 1985: Polar lipids in methanogen taxonomy. Journal Of General Microbiology2: 3277-3286 Polar lipid patterns of representative methanogens were recorded by two dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Phenotypically similar Methanobacterium spp., Methanobrevibacter spp. and Methanomicrobium spp. could readily be distinguished from each other. Similarly, Methanogenium spp. and phenotypically similar Methanococcus spp. had different polar lipid patterns. [...]
De Moerloose P., 1988: Polar contributions of the stationary phase to the reversed phase ion pair high performance liquid chromatographic separation of quaternary ammonium drugs. Journal Of Chromatography: 83-95 The chromatographic reproducibility of a methodology, developed for the separation and determination of quaternary ammonium drugs by reversed-phase ion-pair column liquid chromatography, was studied. The results [...]
Ikai T., 1980: Pneumocystis carinii production of antibody either specific to trophozoite or to cyst wall. Japanese Journal Of Parasitology: 115-126 The purification of P. carinii antibody was performed by absorption with affinity chromatography. Two kinds of crude antigens were used. One was trophozoite derived soluble Ag which was extracted by freezing and thawing the [...]
Francis F.J., 1985: Plum prunus salicina anthocyanins. Ciencia E Tecnologia De Alimentos: 31-38 The present research was carried out in order to identify the pigments presents in Carmesim, a new variety of plums. The pigments were extracted and purified by descending paper chromatography and analysed with respect to the Rf values and their chemical and [...]
Clemmons D.R., 1986: Platelets contain a peptide inhibitor of endothelial cell replication and growth. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The United States Of America: 3321-3325 Platelets release specific growth factors that stimulate division of aortic endothelial cells. Acidification or heating to 56.degree. C of platelet extracts is required to detect these factors. [...]
Menache D., 1979: Platelet fibrinogen from a subject with a congenital plasma fibrinogen abnormality fibrinogen paris i. Blood: 1109-1116 Fibrinogen from normal platelets and plasma was compared with material derived from a subject with the congenital fibrinogen abnormality termed fibrinogen Paris The molecular abnormality in this subject was characterized by the presence (in plasma molecules) [...]
“Inada Y., 1986: Platelet factor xiii the collagen receptor. Journal Of Biological Chemistry: 1355-1358 We have studied the binding of collagen fibers with platelet proteins using affinity chromatography on collagen-Sepharose. Only a few proteins from a platelet lysate were trapped by this column. When denatured collagen (gelatin) was used as the affinity ligand, the major [...]
Barritault D., 1987: Platelet derived growth factor is present in human placenta purification from an industrially processed fraction. Biochimie (paris): 125-130 Platelet derived growth factor was purified from an industrially processed fraction of human placenta (Eap) donated by the Institut Merieux. We first demonstrated that Eap contains Pdgf and the quantity of this growth factor [...]