The term chromatography is derived from two Greek words; the first, chroma translates into “color,” and the second one, graphein, is the verb “to write.” Chromatography is the collective term for a set of laboratory procedures used in the separation of mixtures. The mixture is typically dissolved in a fluid, in a step known as the mobile phase. The mobile phase carries the mixture through a structure that holds another material, which is called the stationary phase.
The various components of the mixture travel through the phases at different speeds, and this difference in speed causes the components to separate. This separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile phase and the stationary phase. Differential retention on the stationary phase—and therefore, the change in the separation—can stem from the subtle differences in a specific compound’s partition coefficient.
There are two main kinds of chromatography: preparative chromatography and analytical chromatography. Preparative chromatography is used to separate the components of a certain mixture for a more advanced use, and many scientists, researchers, and technicians use this technique in order to purify a mixture. On the other hand, analytical chromatography is done with relatively smaller amounts of the material, and is used for measuring the relative proportions of analytes in a specific mixture.
Chromatography has been used since the 1900’s, when it was first employed by a Russian scientist named Mikhail Tsvet. He used chromatography to separate plant pigments such as carotenes, chlorophyll, and xanthophylls. These plant pigments have different colors and therefore gave the technique its present name. During the 1930’s and the 1940’s, new types of chromatography have been developed and made the technique useful for many other separation processes.
This section contains scientific information on chromatography, the collective term for a set of laboratory procedures used in the separation of mixtures.
Tu Y., 1984: Preliminary crystallographic studies on bacterioferritin from azotobacter vinelandii. Scientia Sinica Series B (chemical Biological Agricultural Medical & Earth Sciences): 1002-1007 Bacterioferritin-cytochrome from A. vinelandii is an unusual protein containing heme groups as well as Fe core like other ferritin. This paper reports the purification of bacterioferritin by affinity chromatography and the formation [...]
Weigle W.O., 1982: Preliminary chemical and biologic characterization of an fc fragment induced t cell replacing factor. Journal Of Immunology: 590-594 Human Fc fragment stimulation of mouse Lyt-1+2- T lymphocytes triggers release of a T cell-replacing factor, (Fc)Trf. Chemical and biologic characterization of (Fc)Trf was undertaken to provide information for its comparison with other T [...]
Culp L.A., 1979: Preliminary characterization of the proteo glycans in the substrate adhesion sites of normal and virus transformed murine cells. Biochemistry: 5621-5629 Substrate-attached material consists of the remnants of adhesion sites left firmly adherent to an artificial tissue culture substrate after detachment of normal or Sv40-transformed Balb/c 3t3 cells using the Ca2+ chelator Egta [...]
Mordue W., 1987: Preliminary characterization of locust diuretic peptide dp 1 and another corpus cardiacum peptide lccp. Insect Biochemistry: 383-388 A simple two step Hplc purification protocol is described for one of the locust diuretic peptides (Dp-1) and a second corpus cardiacum peptide (Lccp) of unknown function. Dp-1 and Lccp are extracted from corpora cardiaca [...]
Leduc D., 1984: Preliminary characterization of inhibitors of neisseria gonorrhoeae produced in vitro by eubacterium limosum. Canadian Journal Of Microbiology: 251-259 Among anaerobic bacteria normally found in the urogenital flora, E. limosum inhibited the in vitro growth of N. gonorrhoeae. The antigonococcal activity produced by E. limosum was soluble in methanol and in a CHCl3-methanol [...]
Gaede G., 1984: Preliminary characterization of glycogen phosphorylase activating hormone and adipo kinetic hormone from manduca sexta corpora cardiaca. Physiological Entomology: 229-236 An attempt was made to separate glycogen phosphorylase activating hormone (Gpah) and adipokinetic hormone (Akh) from the corpora cardiaca (Cc) of M. sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) by separating extracts of Cc on various chromatographic [...]
Lank K.M., 1988: Preliminary characterization of a polymorphonuclear leukocyte stimulant isolated from alkali treated collagen. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science: 955-962 This study reports the preliminary characterization of a stimulant released from alkali-treated collagen which activates the respiratory burst of PMNs. The supernatant fraction from alkali-treated collagen (Satc) was precipitated with ammonium sulfate, resuspended, and [...]
Hallbom L., 1988: Preliminary characterization of a toxin isolated from the cyanobacterium nodularia spumigena. Toxicon: 161-166 A peptide toxin was isolated from the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena by high performance liquid chromatography (Hplc). The ip Ld50 of the toxin was 50.mu.g/kg mouse with death within 1-3 hr. The major effects of the toxin were seen in [...]
Levy J.G., 1985: Preliminary characterization of a soluble immunosuppressive molecule from dba 2 spleen cells using monoclonal antibody immunoadsorbance. Cellular Immunology: 303-313 In a previous publication a monoclonal antibody (B16g) which appeared to recognize T suppressor cells and a T-suppressor factor (TsF) in the spleens of Dba/2 mice was described. B16g appears to be directed [...]
Hatcher D., 1988: Preliminary assessment of a sequential extraction scheme for evaluating quality by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and electrophoretic analysis of gliadins and glutenins. Cereal Chemistry: 208-214 After preextraction with 0.5 M sodium chloride to remove albumins and globulins, the storage proteins of five wheats that vary widely in quality were extracted [...]