The term chromatography is derived from two Greek words; the first, chroma translates into “color,” and the second one, graphein, is the verb “to write.” Chromatography is the collective term for a set of laboratory procedures used in the separation of mixtures. The mixture is typically dissolved in a fluid, in a step known as the mobile phase. The mobile phase carries the mixture through a structure that holds another material, which is called the stationary phase.
The various components of the mixture travel through the phases at different speeds, and this difference in speed causes the components to separate. This separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile phase and the stationary phase. Differential retention on the stationary phase—and therefore, the change in the separation—can stem from the subtle differences in a specific compound’s partition coefficient.
There are two main kinds of chromatography: preparative chromatography and analytical chromatography. Preparative chromatography is used to separate the components of a certain mixture for a more advanced use, and many scientists, researchers, and technicians use this technique in order to purify a mixture. On the other hand, analytical chromatography is done with relatively smaller amounts of the material, and is used for measuring the relative proportions of analytes in a specific mixture.
Chromatography has been used since the 1900’s, when it was first employed by a Russian scientist named Mikhail Tsvet. He used chromatography to separate plant pigments such as carotenes, chlorophyll, and xanthophylls. These plant pigments have different colors and therefore gave the technique its present name. During the 1930’s and the 1940’s, new types of chromatography have been developed and made the technique useful for many other separation processes.
This section contains scientific information on chromatography, the collective term for a set of laboratory procedures used in the separation of mixtures.
Voos, Gerard; Groffman, Peter M.; Pfeil, Mariellen, 1994: Laboratory analysis of 2,4-D and dicamba residues in soil. Journal Of Agricultural & Food Chemistry. 42(11): 2502-2507 Soil residues of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and dicamba (2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid) were extracted using a solid-phase extraction technique and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (Hplc) during 80-day field and laboratory experiments. [...]
Zeng, Lu; Gu, Zhe Ming; Fang, Xing Ping; Mclaughlin, Jerry L., 1994: Kneglomeratanol, kneglomeratanones A and B, and related bioactive compounds from Knema glomerata. Journal Of Natural Products (lloydia). 57(3): 376-381 One new phenylalkyl phenol, kneglomeratanol (1), and two new acetophenones, kneglomeratanones A (2) and B (3), together with ten known compounds, 3-(12′-phenyldodecyl)-phenol (4), 3-(10′-phenyldecyl)-phenol [...]
Hildenbrand, S.; Ninnemann, H., 1994: Kinetics of phytoalexin accumulation in potato tubers of different genotypes infected with Erwinia carotovora ssp. atroseptica. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 44(5): 335-347 The time-courses of rotting and phytoalexin accumulation in tuber soft rot tissue of two cultivars of Solanum tuberosum subspecies tuberosum were examined from 1-7 days after inoculation [...]
Vallejo Cordoba, B.; Nakai, S., 1994: Keeping-quality assessment of pasteurized milk by multivariate analysis of dynamic headspace gas chromatographic data. Flavor classification by linear discriminant analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42(4): 994-999 The flavor quality of pasteurized milk was classified by applying linear discriminant analysis (Lda) to volatiles as determined by dynamic headspace [...]
Vallejo Cordoba, B.; Nakai, S., 1994: Keeping-quality assessment of pasteurized milk by multivariate analysis of dynamic headspace gas chromatographic data. Shelf-life prediction by principal component regression. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42(4): 989-993 An objective and rapid analytical system for milk shelf-life prediction was established. Volatiles as determined by dynamic headspace capillary gas chromatography [...]
Adlercreutz, Herman; Fotsis, Theodore; Kurzer, Mindy S.; Wahala, Kristiina; Makela, Taru; Hase, Tapio, 1995: Isotope dilution gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the determination of unconjugated lignans and isoflavonoids in human feces, with preliminary results in omnivorous and vegetarian women. Analytical Biochemistry. 225(1): 101-108 We describe an isotope dilution gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (Gc/Ms) method for the [...]
Wongkham, Sopit; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Simasathiansophon, Sontaya; Trisonthi, Chusri; Atisook, Kanit, 1995: Isolectins from seeds of Artocarpus lakoocha. Phytochemistry (oxford). 40(5): 1331-1334 Two isolectins (Ala-I and Ala-Ii), were isolated from seed extracts of Artocarpus lakoocha by anion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose fast flow columns at pH 8.5 and 8.0. Ala-I was unbound to the [...]
Silversand, Christer; Hyllner, Sven Johan; Haux, Carl, 1993: Isolation, immunochemical detection, and observations of the instability of vitellogenin from four teleosts. Journal Of Experimental Zoology. 267(6): 587-597 Vitellogenin was purified from plasma of estradiol-17-beta-treated cod (Gadus morhua) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), and wolffish (Anarhichas lupus) by precipitation with EDTA:Mg-2+, distilled water, and [...]
Khalil, A. H.; El Adawy, T. A., 1994: Isolation, identification and toxicity of saponin from different legumes. Food Chemistry. 50(2): 201 Saponin extracts were prepared from peas, beans and soya bean seeds by four different methods. Two biological assays were developed for measuring toxicity of crude saponin extracts based on haemolytic activity and fish mortality. [...]
Du, H; Simpson, Rj; Moritz, Rl; Clarke, Ae; Bacic, A., 1994: Isolation of the protein backbone of an arabinogalactan-protein from the styles of Nicotiana alata and characterization of a corresponding cDNA. Plant cell 6(11): 1643-1653 Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) from the styles of Nicotiana alata were isolated by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. After deglycosylation by [...]