The term chromatography is derived from two Greek words; the first, chroma translates into “color,” and the second one, graphein, is the verb “to write.” Chromatography is the collective term for a set of laboratory procedures used in the separation of mixtures. The mixture is typically dissolved in a fluid, in a step known as the mobile phase. The mobile phase carries the mixture through a structure that holds another material, which is called the stationary phase.
The various components of the mixture travel through the phases at different speeds, and this difference in speed causes the components to separate. This separation is based on differential partitioning between the mobile phase and the stationary phase. Differential retention on the stationary phase—and therefore, the change in the separation—can stem from the subtle differences in a specific compound’s partition coefficient.
There are two main kinds of chromatography: preparative chromatography and analytical chromatography. Preparative chromatography is used to separate the components of a certain mixture for a more advanced use, and many scientists, researchers, and technicians use this technique in order to purify a mixture. On the other hand, analytical chromatography is done with relatively smaller amounts of the material, and is used for measuring the relative proportions of analytes in a specific mixture.
Chromatography has been used since the 1900’s, when it was first employed by a Russian scientist named Mikhail Tsvet. He used chromatography to separate plant pigments such as carotenes, chlorophyll, and xanthophylls. These plant pigments have different colors and therefore gave the technique its present name. During the 1930’s and the 1940’s, new types of chromatography have been developed and made the technique useful for many other separation processes.
This section contains scientific information on chromatography, the collective term for a set of laboratory procedures used in the separation of mixtures.
Herz A., 1985: Foot shock stress induced release of vasopressin in adenohypophysectomized and hypophysectomized rats. Endocrinology: 292-299 The effect of inescapable electric foot shock stress on vasopressin (Vp) release was studied in conscious rats. In sham-operated animals, foot shock stress markedly increased plasma.beta.-endorphin-like immunoreactivity; plasma Vp levels (radioimmunoassay) remained unchanged. After selective ablation of the [...]
Scrimgeour K.G., 1984: Folylpolyglutamate synthetase from beef liver assay stabilization and characterization. Canadian Journal Of Biochemistry & Cell Biology: 495-506 A reliable assay for folylpolyglutamate synthetase was devised and tested. Conditions were established for the complete separation of glutamate and the tritium-labeled products on columns of Deae-cellulose. The availability of this assay aided in partially [...]
Cossins E.A., 1984: Folyl poly glutamate deficiencies in 2 methionine requiring mutants of neurospora crassa. Zeitschrift Fuer Pflanzenphysiologie: 455-466 The growth of 2 N. crassa methionine auxotrophs (met-6, 35809, Fgsc 1330 and mac, 65109, Fgsc 3609), that have lesions affecting folylpolyglutamate synthetase, was examined by culture in defined, liquid media. Both mutants responded to L-methionine [...]
Sluss P.M., 1988: Follicle stimulating hormone fsh immunoactivity in porcine follicular fluid is not pituitary fsh. Endocrinology: 487-491 Two inhibitors of Fsh binding to receptor have been isolated from porcine follicular fluid and shown to have in vitro biological activity. These inhibitors were distinct separable entities with opposite biological effects (agonist and antagonist) on cultured [...]
Tanaka A., 1987: Folic acid reference standard control 861 of national institute of hygienic sciences. Bulletin Of National Institute Of Hygienic Sciences (tokyo): 82-84 Folic Acid Reference Standard (control 861) for the Japanese Pharmacopoeia was prepared. The following analytical data were obtained: water content, 78%: free amines, 0.11%; free pteridines, 0.03%; infrared spectrum, same as [...]
Cooper Driver G., 1987: Foliar flavonoids and the systematics of solanum section basarthrum. Systematic Botany: 534-540 Utilizing column, 2-dimensional paper, thin layer, and high performance liquid chromatography, 13 flavonoids, predominantly flavonol diglycosides, were isolated from 20 of the 22 species of Solanum section Basarthrum. Twelve of the flavonols were fully characterized as glycosides of quercetin [...]
Scogin R., 1988: Foliar flavonoids of camellia chrysantha theaceae. Aliso: 59-62 Foliar flavonoids of Camellia chrysantha consist of two flavone C-glycosides which have chromatographic and spectroscopic properties very similar to corymboside and isocorymboside. The lack of detectable foliar flavonol glycosides contrasts with their presence in flowers of this species and may be anomalous within the [...]
Erbe R.W., 1981: Folate poly glutamate and mono glutamate accumulation in normal and sv 40 transformed human fibroblasts. Journal Of Cellular Physiology: 497-506 Folate polyglutamate and monoglutamate accumulation was measured in normal diploid and Sv40-transformed human fibroblasts by Sephadex G-10 gel filtration chromatography. The cells were first depleted of folates and then provided with limiting [...]
Ito Y., 1988: Foam countercurrent chromatography on various test samples and the effects of additives on foam affinity. Journal Of Liquid Chromatography: 21-36 Foam countercurrent chromatography has been applied to various samples using sodium dodecyl sulfate (Sds), cetyl pyridinium chloride (Cpc), and polyoxyethylene-23-lauryl ether (Poele) as foaming reagents. Overall results clearly indicate that the positively [...]
Li, C.; Calabrese, R. L., 1987: Fmrfamide like substances in the leech iii. biochemical characterization and physiological effects. Journal of Neuroscience 7(2): 595-603 FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity has been previously localized to identified neurons in the Cns of the leech, Hirudo medicinalis (Kuhlman et al., 1985a). These leech antigens have been characterized biochemically by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid [...]