The term phenotype is derived from the Greek words phainen (“to show”) and typos (“type”). A phenotype is essentially the composite of an organism’s observable characteristics and traits, including the morphology, development, biochemical and physiological properties, behavior, phenology, and various products of behavior of the organism. Phenotypes come from the expression of an organism’s genes, as well as the influence that the environment extends on the organism and the interactions between environment and organism.
The genotype of the organism contains the inherited “instructions” that will dictate its genetic code. However, not all organisms with the same genotype will look or act the same way, as the environmental and developmental conditions that the organism has been subjected to. Also, it is important to note that not all organisms that look alike have the same genotype.
In 1911, the Danish geneticist Wilhelm Johannsen proposed a distinction between genotypes and phenotypes in order to make clear the difference between the heredity of the organism and what this heredity produces. Johannsen’s genotype-phenotype distinction is very similar to that proposed by an evolutionary biologist, August Weismann. In his distinction proposal, Weismann stated the differences between the germ plasm (which is involved with heredity) and the somatic cells (referring to the body).
While it might seem that anything that depends on the genotype is a phenotype (including molecules such as proteins and the RNA). This is because most molecules and structures that are coded by the genetic material are not visible in the appearance of the organism, but they are observable and can be considered as part of the phenotype. Human blood groups are an example of an invisible yet observable phenotype.
This category contains scientific information on phenotype, the composite of an organism’s observable characteristics and traits, including the morphology, development, biochemical and physiological properties, behavior, phenology, and various products of behavior of the organism.
Juneja R.K., 1985: Prediction of the halothane hal genotypes of pigs by deducing hal phi po 2 pgd haplotypes of parents and offspring results from a large scale practice in swedish breeds. Animal Blood Groups & Biochemical Genetics: 265-284 Results from a large-scale study, comprising 75 different breeding herds, are reported on predicting the halothane [...]
Elsen, J. M.; Poivey, J. P., 1986: Prediction of genetic merit in the case of uncertain paternity ii. using gestation length for computing probabilities of descent. Genetique Selection Evolution (Versailles) 18(2): 157-172 In order to take into account errors about paternity in the expression of selection indexes, the a priori distribution (before obtaining phenotypic values) [...]
Miranda Filho J.B.D., 1985: Predicting the potential of open pollinating populations for the production of superior f 1 hybrids. Theoretical & Applied Genetics: 563-569 The distributive properties of a single population or of a population resulting from a cross between two populations are reproduced when inbreds randomly extracted from the population itself or from the [...]
Biozzi G., 1986: Potentialities of immunocompetent cells in high and low antibody producing lines of mice obtained by selective breedings for responsiveness to flagellar or somatic antigens of salmonellae. Journal Of Immunogenetics (oxford): 309-320 The genetic modifications of immunocompetent cell functions were investigated in high (H) and low (L) antibody responder lines of mice obtained [...]
Nacheva J., 1980: Possibilities for predicting the effectiveness of selection by intra cocoon concordance of silk fiber weight in bombyx mori. Genetika I Selektsiya: 206-211 Individual selection was carried out in 2 initial populations of the Super-1 and Super-2 breeds, and progenies of selected parents with highest values and of individuals from the initial population [...]
Tarrant P.V., 1986: Pork quality in irish purebred pigs. Irish Journal Of Agricultural Research: 379-392 Pork quality was determined on purebred Landrace and Large White pigs from the national testing station at Thorndale, Dublin. Measurement of pork quality was by a number of instrumental and subjective methods, pH, colour, water-holding capacity, pigment concentration and subjective [...]
Whitfield D.P., 1986: Plumage variability and territoriality in breeding turnstone arenaria interpres status signalling or individual recognition?. Animal Behaviour: 1471-1482 The turnstone Arenaria interpres has marked plumage variability in comparison with many other waders (shorebirds). Two hypotheses were tested in an attempt to explain plumage variability in breeding turnstones. The first, the status signalling hypothesis [...]
Willman, M. R.; Below, F. E.; Lambert, R. J.; Howey, A. E.; Mies, D. W., 1987: Plant traits related to productivity of maize i. genetic variability environmental variation and correlation with grain yield and stalk lodging. Crop Science 27(6): 1116-1121 Numerous physiological traits act and interact with each other and the environment to determine maize [...]
Shepherd R.L., 1987: Plant pubescence genetic background and seasonal effects on agronomic and fiber properties of upland cotton. Crop Science: 865-868 Smooth-leaved lines of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), although showing resistance to certain insects, have frequently been deficient in some agronomic and fiber properties. In this study, we compared lint yield, yield components, and other [...]
Reynolds R.P., 1984: Phenotypic variation of the mexican duck anas platyrhynchos diazi in mexico. Condor: 266-274 A collection of 98 breeding Mexican Ducks (A.) was made in Mexico from 6 areas between the Usa border with Chihuahua and Lake Chapala, Jalisco, to study geographic variation. Plumage indices showed a relatively smooth clinal change from north [...]