The term phenotype is derived from the Greek words phainen (“to show”) and typos (“type”). A phenotype is essentially the composite of an organism’s observable characteristics and traits, including the morphology, development, biochemical and physiological properties, behavior, phenology, and various products of behavior of the organism. Phenotypes come from the expression of an organism’s genes, as well as the influence that the environment extends on the organism and the interactions between environment and organism.
The genotype of the organism contains the inherited “instructions” that will dictate its genetic code. However, not all organisms with the same genotype will look or act the same way, as the environmental and developmental conditions that the organism has been subjected to. Also, it is important to note that not all organisms that look alike have the same genotype.
In 1911, the Danish geneticist Wilhelm Johannsen proposed a distinction between genotypes and phenotypes in order to make clear the difference between the heredity of the organism and what this heredity produces. Johannsen’s genotype-phenotype distinction is very similar to that proposed by an evolutionary biologist, August Weismann. In his distinction proposal, Weismann stated the differences between the germ plasm (which is involved with heredity) and the somatic cells (referring to the body).
While it might seem that anything that depends on the genotype is a phenotype (including molecules such as proteins and the RNA). This is because most molecules and structures that are coded by the genetic material are not visible in the appearance of the organism, but they are observable and can be considered as part of the phenotype. Human blood groups are an example of an invisible yet observable phenotype.
This category contains scientific information on phenotype, the composite of an organism’s observable characteristics and traits, including the morphology, development, biochemical and physiological properties, behavior, phenology, and various products of behavior of the organism.
Reynolds R.P., 1984: Phenotypic variation of the mexican duck anas platyrhynchos diazi in mexico. Condor: 266-274 A collection of 98 breeding Mexican Ducks (A.) was made in Mexico from 6 areas between the Usa border with Chihuahua and Lake Chapala, Jalisco, to study geographic variation. Plumage indices showed a relatively smooth clinal change from north [...]
Johnson B.H., 1983: Phenotypic variation in testosterone and luteinizing hormone production among boars differential response to gonadotropin releasing hormone acth. Biology Of Reproduction: 464-471 Variation in ability of boars to produce testosterone and luteinizing hormone (Lh) in response to both gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and Acth stimulation, as well as quantitative relationships between pretreatment and [...]
Noble D.G., 1984: Phenotypic variation among thick billed murres from colonies in hudson strait canada. Arctic: 284-287 Thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) breeding in the Canadian Arctic are restricted to a small number of colonies, all comprising more than 10,000 pairs. Five of these colonies are scattered through Hudson Strait. Adult breeders at 3 of the [...]
Gambarin L., 1984: Phenotypic variability in natural and cultivated populations of timothy phleum pratense. Rivista Di Agronomia: 49-62 A spaced plant experiment with 5 natural populations of timothy collected in northern Italy was carried out in 1979 and 1980 at Feltre (Belluno) to compare the natural variability with that of 5 commercial cultivars and to [...]
Bhati, G. N.; Sharma, S. K.; Harsh, L. N., 1985: Phenotypic stability of some promising strains of cenchrus ciliaris linn. in arid and semi arid regions of rajasthan india. Indian Forester 111(9): 714-719 Eight promising strains of Cenchrus ciliaria were studied at three different locations i.e. Jodhpur, Pali and Samdari for three consecutive years from [...]
Singh H., 1979: Phenotypic stability in cicer arietinum. Genetica Agraria4: 200 The present study was conducted on 75 strains of C. arietinum L. (representing different countries and states within India) which were grown in 4 different environments. A few strains, including P653, F293, Allahabad S-1 and Lahore-16 were highly adaptable for seed yield; P1508, F229, [...]
Thompson J.P., 1981: Phenotypic relationships among australian and mexican wheat cultivars. Euphytica: 467-482 Plants of 43 Australian wheat cultivars of historical and contemporary importance and 7 Mexican introductions were grown in a glasshouse and measured for 27 morphological and physiological attributes. Phenotypic relationships among the cultivars across all attributes were examined by hierarchical classification and [...]
Cornelius P.L., 1984: Phenotypic recurrent selection for stem length in cultivar kenstar red clover trifolium pratense. Crop Science: 578-582 The effect of 6 cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection for stem length in red clover was studied in spaced plantings and in drilled plots. The objectives were to evaluate the genetic and agronomic changes that occurred [...]
Fonseca C.G., 1986: Phenotypic genetic and environmental correlation between weights and between weight and average daily gain of tabapua calves. Revista Da Sociedade Brasileira De Zootecnia: 145-150 Data from 939 Tabapua calves, 512 males and 427 females, from 38 sires with a minimum of 6 and average of 20,34 progenies/sire were studied. The calves were [...]
Scarascia Mugnozza G.T., 1987: Phenotypic distances full sibs grouping and vicia faba breeding. Genetica Agraria: 385-396 Euclidean as well as Mahalanobis distances have been estimated among 165 full-sibs produced by crossing 11 male parents and 15 female parents chosen from 26 accessions of Vicia faba according to a factorial mating design. Raw data, raw data [...]