The term genotype refers to the genetic structure of a cell, an organism, or an individual. A common application of this term is in the case of the specific allele makeup of the individual, usually with the reference to a specific characteristic taken under consideration. In the human CFTR gene, which is responsible for encoding a protein that transports chloride ions across the cell membranes can be dominant (which means that it is the normal version of the gene) or recessive (which means that it is the mutated version of the gene). Individuals that have two recessive alleles of the human CFTR gene will be diagnosed with cystic fibrosis.
Genotype is closely related to the genomic sequence, but there are subtle differences between the two. The term genomic sequence refers to the absolute measure of base composition of an individual, or a representative of a specific species or group. The term genotype, on the other hand, refers to the measurement of an individual organism differs within a group of other individuals or a species.
The difference between genotype and phenotype is often encountered in the study of family patterns for particular hereditary diseases or conditions, such as in the case of hemophilia. There are two alleles for any given genes, especially in humans and most animals. These alleles can be of the same variety (homozygous) or of different ones (heterozygous) depending on the individual of interest. With a dominant allele, the offspring can be expected to inherit the trait in question, regardless of the second allele. In the case of a recessive allele, such as in the case of albinism, the phenotype depends on the other allele.
This category contains scientific information on genotype, the genetic structure of a cell, an organism, or an individual.
Sullivan, C. F.; Finch, I.; Dix, P. J.; Burke, J. I., 1993: Studies of in vitro propagation systems for sugar beet. Irish Journal Of Agricultural & Food Research. 32(1): 27-35 Commercial cultivars of Beta vulgaris (sugar beet) and an annual diploid line, as well as some breeder’s materials developed in Ireland, were used in studies [...]
Hillel, J.; Gibbins, A. M. Verrinder; Etches, R. J.; Shaver, D. M., 1993: Strategies for the rapid introgression of a specific gene modification into a commercial poultry flock from a single carrier. Poultry Science. 72(7): 1197-1211 Several breeding strategies are presented that will yield lines of chickens that are homozygous for a specific genetic modification [...]
Tikle, A. N.; Yadava, H. S., 1993: Stability assessment of grain yield in kodo-millet. Advances In Plant Sciences. 6(1 Suppl.): 34-38 An attempt was made in this study to identify the high yielding genotypes of kodo-millet possessing wider adaptability and stability for grain yield under its complex farming conditions. The results revealed that Jk-76, Ips-147-1, [...]
Deren, C. W., 1992: Stability and heritability of pith in sugarcane and its influence on yield. Plant Breeding. 109(3): 242-247 Selection for reduction of elimination of pith is common in sugarcane breeding programs. Pith is considered to be associated with reduced sugar yield. The purposes of this experiment were to investigate the relationship of pith [...]
Swiezynski, Kazimierz M.; Domanski, Leszek; Sieczka, Maria T.; Zarzycka, Hanna, 1993: Specific resistance to Phytophthora infestans in the potato. Genetica Polonica. 34(4): 327-336 In two groups of tests, tuber slices and leaflets of various potato genotypes were inoculated with virulent isolates of Phytophthora infestans. In the first group three potato cultivars, differing in resistance level, [...]
Franca Neto, J. B.; Krzyzanowski, F. C.; Henning, A. A.; West, S. H.; Miranda, L. C., 1993: Soybean seed quality as affected by shriveling due to heat and drought stresses during seed filling. Seed Science & Technology. 21(1): 107-116 A high level of shriveled soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seeds was reported in several regions [...]
Debeaujon, Isabelle; Branchard, Michel, 1993: Somatic embryogenesis in Cucurbitaceae. Plant Cell Tissue & Organ Culture. 34(1): 91-100 Strategies based on the application of biotechnologies to crop improvement programmes generally require regeneration of whole plants from cells or tissues cultivated in vitro. In Cucurbitaceae, regeneration can occur either through a caulogenic or an embryogenic developmental pathway. [...]
Van Sanford, D. A.; Pfeiffer, T. W.; Cornelius, P. L., 1993: Selection index based on genetic correlations among environments. Crop Science. 33(6): 1244-1248 Plant breeders often conduct preliminary tests of genotypes at one or two primary locations due to limited seed supply and/or limited resources. The location of these tests may be somewhat arbitrary, and [...]
Gourmet, C; Kolb, Fl; Hewings, Ad; Brown, Cm, 1992: Selection for barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance in F2 oat populations in the greenhouse. Crop science 32(6): 1476-1479 Barley yellow dwarf (Bydv) is an important viral disease that reduces grain yield in small grains. Breeders usually do not screen for barley yellow dwarf virus (Bydv) tolerance [...]
Ram C.; Singh O.; Kharb R.P.S.; Kumari P.; Yadava T.P., 1991: Seedling vigour in pigeonpea. Seed Science & Technology. : 627-631 Nineteen genotypes of pigeonpea were evaluated for different parameters of seedling vigour in the laboratory viz, standard germination, root length, shoot length and dry matter of seedlings, 1000 seed weight, accelerated ageing germination, electrical [...]