The term breeding refers to the mating and production of offspring by animals or other living organisms. It can also refer to the activity of controlling or mediating in the mating and reproduction of organisms. Breeding is also used synonymously with the term reproduction, which is the biological process where new individual organisms—referred to as offspring—are produced from parent organisms. Reproduction is a fundamental and important feature of all known life in the planet, with each individual organism existing as a result of this biological process. There are two types of reproduction: sexual and asexual.
Sexual reproduction often requires two individuals or gametes to be involved in the process. However, asexual reproduction can be more complicated. An individual organism with the capability to reproduce asexually is able to reproduce without the involvement of another individual of the same species. A bacterial has the ability to divide itself into two daughter cells. But asexual reproduction is not limited to single-celled organisms.
For many animals, breeding season is the most suitable season for reproduction. Typically, a breeding season has favorable conditions, as well as abundant food and water, which makes it ideal for wild animals and even birds to procreate. Species that have a breeding season have evolved—through natural means—to have sexual intercourse with other individuals of the same species during a particular time of the year in order to achieve the best chances of reproductive success.
Some species also breed in colonies (or large communities), and this practice is known as communal breeding. With these species, it is common to see large groups of individuals gathering in a particular location.
This section contains scientific information on breeding, a term that refers to the mating and production of offspring by animals or other living organisms.
Sramek P., 1983: Preliminary evaluation of heritability in selected traits of f 2 progenies of ryegrass lolium perenne and meadow fescue festuca pratensis generations. Sbornik Vedeckych Praci Vyzkumneho A Slechtitelskeho Ustavu Picninarskeho Troubsku U Brna: 86 The evaluation of F2 progenies of ryegrass and meadow fescue generations has become part of the breeding program, the [...]
Gerasimenko V.F., 1981: Preliminary evaluation of breeding material based on parameters of ecological plasticity. Sel’Skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya: 938-941 The harvest index (grain weight:biomass ratio) and parameters of ecological plasticity were used to develop a principle for estimating breeding material. It is contrary to existing methods and can be used, in a given climatic zone, when there [...]
Kentouri M., 1983: Preliminary data on the characteristics of the embryonic and larval development of the striped sea bream lithognathus mormyrus in extensive aquaculture. Cybium: 89-103 Eggs of L. mormyrus stripped from wild breeders and artificially fecundated are incubated in 5 thermic conditions and yield larvae which are reared in extensive breeding till fry stage. [...]
May K., 1985: Preliminary biological study on two taxa of the anopheles balabacensis complex in burma. Japanese Journal Of Genetics: 373-380 An attraction to biologically different characters, breeding site and behavioural features between two Burmese taxa, malaria vector members of the Anopheles (An.) balabacensis complex obliged us to evaluate their genetic divergence by morphological, genetic, [...]
Ims R.A., 1986: Pregnancy rates in small rodents the consequences of differential onset of breeding. Oikos: 355-358 Pregnancy rate is often used as a determinant of reproductive rates in population studies of small rodents. But pregnancy rate and reproductive rate are not necessarily positively correlated. Low pregnancy rates may be observed in field, even though [...]
Sackett G.P., 1981: Pregnancy outcome following jet transport stress in nonhuman primates. Journal Of Medical Primatology3: 149-154 Pregnancy outcomes following jet airplane shipment during pregnancy or before return to a breeding group were compared with outcomes that did not involve air shipment. For pigtailed macaques, long-tailed macaques, and baboons, viable offspring rates were not affected [...]
Huis In’t Veld L.G., 1981: Pregnancy diagnosis in macaca fascicularis hem agglutination inhibition test for urinary chorionic gonadotropin and implantation bleeding. Journal Of Medical Primatology3: 141-148 The Subhuman Primate Pregnancy Tube Test (Shpt test) was useful for early pregnancy diagnosis in cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis). Test results were correct in 86.5% of series of 4 [...]
Foote W.C., 1982: Pregnancy diagnosis in does and ewes. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira: 1089-1092 Two hundred and three does and 112 ewes, submitted to breeding season from Oct. 1 to Nov. 29 in 1980, were used for an experiment to test efficiency of ultrasonic method in diagnosing pregnancy. The results are presented according to species and [...]
Hallford D.M., 1985: Prefreezing and post thaw semen characteristics of 5 ram breeds collected by electroejaculation. Theriogenology: 431-440 Rams representing 5 breeds were electroejaculated twice weekly, during a 3-wk collection period. Ejaculates were evaluated for volume and concentration before freeezing and for rate of motility and percentages of motile and abnormal cells both before and [...]
Robertson R.J., 1985: Preferred nest spacing of an obligate cavity nesting bird the tree swallow tachycineta bicolor. Condor: 356-363 In order to determine the preferred dispersion of a population of breeding Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) in Ontario, we set up an abundant supply of nest boxes with a variety of distances between them. The 72 [...]