The term breeding refers to the mating and production of offspring by animals or other living organisms. It can also refer to the activity of controlling or mediating in the mating and reproduction of organisms. Breeding is also used synonymously with the term reproduction, which is the biological process where new individual organisms—referred to as offspring—are produced from parent organisms. Reproduction is a fundamental and important feature of all known life in the planet, with each individual organism existing as a result of this biological process. There are two types of reproduction: sexual and asexual.
Sexual reproduction often requires two individuals or gametes to be involved in the process. However, asexual reproduction can be more complicated. An individual organism with the capability to reproduce asexually is able to reproduce without the involvement of another individual of the same species. A bacterial has the ability to divide itself into two daughter cells. But asexual reproduction is not limited to single-celled organisms.
For many animals, breeding season is the most suitable season for reproduction. Typically, a breeding season has favorable conditions, as well as abundant food and water, which makes it ideal for wild animals and even birds to procreate. Species that have a breeding season have evolved—through natural means—to have sexual intercourse with other individuals of the same species during a particular time of the year in order to achieve the best chances of reproductive success.
Some species also breed in colonies (or large communities), and this practice is known as communal breeding. With these species, it is common to see large groups of individuals gathering in a particular location.
This section contains scientific information on breeding, a term that refers to the mating and production of offspring by animals or other living organisms.
Trenkle A., 1986: Plasma growth hormone insulin glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones in large medium and small breeds of steers with and without an estradiol implant. Domestic Animal Endocrinology: 261-268 Growth hormone secretory patterns and plasma concentrations of insulin, adrenal corticosteroids, thyroxine and triiodothyronine were mesured in three types of steers with and without estradiol implants. [...]
Yen J.T., 1982: Plasma glucose insulin and lipids during growth of genetically lean and obese swine. Growth: 189-198 Female pigs were selected at birth from litters of genetically lean and obese and contemporary commercial-type pigs to quantify the biweekly changes in fasting concentrations of plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin, triglyceride and cholesterol during the growing period [...]
Zerobin K., 1987: Plasma cortisol profiles during the breeding and nonbreeding season of nonmated mated and ovariectomized ewes. Zuchthygiene (berlin): 151-157 Our experiments with non mated, pregnant and castrated sheep indicate that plasma cortisol levels fluctuate according to increasing and decreasing photoperiod and in addition seem to be influenced by ovarian hormones, pregnancy and lactation. [...]
Duke C.E., 1979: Plasma concentrations of prolactin during the reproductive cycle of the domestic turkey meleagris gallopavo. Poultry Science: 963-970 Plasma concentrations of prolactin were measured by a heterologous double antibody radioimmunoassay during the reproductive cycle of Large White turkey hens. In all hens, there was a large increase in the plasma concentration of Prl [...]
Hall M.R., 1986: Plasma concentrations of prolactin during the breeding cycle in the cape gannet sula capensis a foot incubator. General & Comparative Endocrinology: 112-121 Plasma prolactin was measured in the Cape gannet (Sula capensis) which differs from most other avian species in that although both sexes share equally in incubation duties, neither sex possesses [...]
Pandey R.S., 1982: Plasma concentrations of progesterone estradiol 17 beta and luteinizing hormone in relation to repeat breeding in buffalo bubalus bubalis. Animal Production: 139-144 Progesterone, estradiol-17.beta. and luteinizing hormone were measured by radioimmunoassay in plasma samples collected daily or on alternate days following insemination in 6 repeat breeder buffaloes. The endocrine profiles in these [...]
Sanford L.M., 1988: Plasma androgen levels and body weights for breeding and nonbreeding male american kestrels. Condor: 555-560 Plasma androgen levels (1981) and body weights (1980 and 1981) were determined weekly between April and September of breeding and nonbreeding captive male American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) paired with females. Irrespective of breeding group, males exhibited comparable [...]
Willman, M. R.; Below, F. E.; Lambert, R. J.; Howey, A. E.; Mies, D. W., 1987: Plant traits related to productivity of maize i. genetic variability environmental variation and correlation with grain yield and stalk lodging. Crop Science 27(6): 1116-1121 Numerous physiological traits act and interact with each other and the environment to determine maize [...]
Boe A.A., 1986: Plant regeneration in callus cultures derived from young inflorescences of little bluestem schizachyrium scoparium. Crop Science: 827-829 Little Bluestem, a warm-season perennial grass, is valuable for range and conservation plantings in the Great Plains. The objectives of this study were to develop rapid vegetative propagation techniques to facilitate selection of superior genotypes [...]
Ramulu K.S., 1980: Plant regeneration from in vitro cultures of anthers and stem internodes in an interspecific hybrid lycopersicon esculentum x lycopersicon peruvianum and cyto genetic analysis of the regenerated plants. Plant Science Letters: 157-166 Attempts were made, through in vitro culture of anthers and stem internodes, to produce haploids and amphidiploids in a self-incompatible [...]